Exhibit News: "Pattern, Decoration & Crime" travels to Le Consortium

Install View at MAMCO featuring “Elephant Rose” by Robert Zakantich (left). Photo: Annik Wetter

Install View at MAMCO featuring “Elephant Rose” by Robert Zakantich (left). Photo: Annik Wetter

Pattern, Crime & Decoration

May 16 - Oct 20, 2019

Consortium Museum
37, rue de Longvic 21000
Dijon, FRANCE

This exhibition is a joint collaboration with Lionel Bovier and the MAMCO in Geneva, where it was presented from Oct. 10, 2018 to Feb. 03, 2019.

Pattern, Crime & Decoration features the groundbreaking, artist-led American art movement Pattern & Decoration, which started in the mid-1970s and lasted until the mid-1980s. Often viewed as the last organized art movement of the 20th century, it chronologically straddles the end of modernism and the beginning of postmodernism, through its rejection of the rigid tenets of formalism and its embrace of decorative motifs and non-Western visual forms. Strongly grounded in feminism, it included many women artists and sought to highlight some kinds of arts and crafts often dismissed as belonging to the domestic or decorative sphere such as tapestry, quilting, wallpaper or embroidery.

Against the purist, prescriptive background of the dominant art forms of their time such as Minimalism and Conceptualism, Pattern & Decoration signaled the end of the reductivist arc of formalist modernism and the beginning of a new era, by freely and subversively borrowing from the formal vocabulary of Islamic art, Mexican and Indian cultures, or Roman and Byzantine mosaics, diverting the rigidity of the minimalist grid to create repeated patterns that boldly emphasized figurative tropes, bright colors, flowering outlines and arabesques. The movement, gathered around the writings of art critic Amy Goldin (1926-1978), was supported by art dealers Holly Solomon in New York and Bruno Bischofberger in Switzerland. Although Pattern & Decoration was critically and commercially successful at its inception, it faded from view after the 1980s.

In retrospect, it can now be viewed as a forerunner for many art currents that followed, with its use of deconstructed, loose shapes, interest in non-Western art, dazzling colors and mixed patterns used to reject the patriarchal, Eurocentric framework of modernism as embodied in Adolf Loos’s 1910 essay Ornament and Crime.

In this exhibition at the Consortium Museum, artists from the Pattern & Decoration movement are presented alongside forerunners like George Sugarman (1912-1999), an artist best-known for his colorful sculptures that at the time of their making escaped all categorization, “neither Pop nor Minimal” but were rather “maximalists” and which, in their refusal to conform to a prevailing type of art in the 1960s and 1970s anticipated the state of mind at the root of the Pattern & Decoration movement; as well as American and European artists from the same era whose work shares similar formal concerns, such as Lynda Benglis, Alan Shields, Marc Camille Chaimowicz, Claude Viallat or Simon Hantaï.

Artworks by Valerie Jaudon (b. 1945), Tony Robbin (b. 1943), Joyce Kozloff (b. 1942), Simon Hantaï (1922-2008), Joe Zucker (b. 1941), Mario Yrisarry (b. 1933), George Woodman (1932-2017) and Richard Kalina (b. 1946) examine the function of patterns in their repetition, deviations and repartition on a grid, which builds on the same formal organization principles as Minimalism but depart from the latter’s austere theoretical severity by following the influence of Non-Western arts and most specifically textile arts.

Pieces by Miriam Schapiro (1923-2015), Cynthia Carlson (b. 1942), Tina Girouard (b. 1946), Alan Shields (1944-2005), Robert Zakanitch (b. 1935), Claude Viallat (b. 1936) and Alvin D. Loving (1935-2005) share a common ground when recalling or being obviously inspired by quilting techniques––a traditional kind of vernacular, feminine craft—or by embroidery and sewing, and challenge formal considerations associated with modernism such as the flatness of painting by producing hybrid creations: cut-out backgrounds, fabrics hanging from the ceiling, and visual disruptions by juxtaposing various patterns. 

Other works display exuberant colors and formal compositions, whose exploration of decorative motifs recalls the importance of Henri Matisse and most specifically his famed paper cutouts, with Robert Kushner (b. 1949), Kim MacConnel (b. 1946), Betty Woodman (b. 1930), Brad Davis (b. 1942) and Marc Camille Chaimowicz (b. 1947) whose more recent work reactivates the legacy of Pattern & Decoration within the exhibition.

Other artworks are marked by opulence, baroque, glitter, and immersive spaces with Rodney Ripps (b. 1950), Ned Smyth (b. 1948), Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt (b. 1948), Lynda Benglis (b. 1941) and Jennifer Cecere (b. 1950), with lush installations and pieces displaying colorful, ethereal fabrics and objects based on elements such as dollies and fans covered with ornamental motifs and patterns in saturated colors.

The exhibition will be accompanied by a comprehensive catalog with previously unpublished archival material.

A letter from Zakanitch: Revisiting P&D

Robert Zakanitch in front of his "Big Bungalow Suite I," 1990-93, Acrylic on canvas, 11 x 30 ft.

On the occasion of the opening of the exhibition Pattern and Decoration: Ornament as Promise at the Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst in Aachen, Germany, Robert Zakanitch a founder of the movement revisits the period in a statement updating his thoughts and relating it to his current work in the studio.

The Pattern & Decoration Movement

a revisiting essay by Robert Zakantich

In 1975 the P&D Movement (the supposed, movement that never was) changed deeply, psychologically and physically the direction of Arts mainstream (if not, eliminating it). With it came real alternatives and new paths but most of all: it gave the ‘permission’ to take them because now it revealed that there was actually a real beyond, beyond the concept of Formalism. The Movement ended over 150 years of reductive painting and the idea of 'less is more' and the 20th century' march to the 'deconstruction of all of the arts.

The many years spent moving through my personal formalism, Greenbergian, huge paintings of colors (and yet looking for another third subject matter), my paintings were very subtly, but constantly changing. It has been of interest to me that once young artists are recognized with a particular style they are expected to continue to paint similar paintings of similar style With me, even early on I felt there was always more. I eventually realized that making Art is forever on going and it is always waiting and wanting more.... and every artist knows there is always more to know… so I never could understand the idea of how or why I was expected to repeatedly paint the same work over and over again.

- - -

It was in my Pattern & Decoration works of the early 70s that I found the first steps of release from Formalism: but very grateful for it's insightful wisdom and a rich solid foundation, based on the beauty and purity of materials.

Up to that point in the history of Art we as artist had had only two choices of subject matter: Representational and then in the 20th Century, Abstraction. I for years was looking for a 3rd (which made me feel as if I was looking for a new, never before seen, color). Then, surprisingly, hiding at the very root of my P&D ideas was the discovery of this new third subject matter which ironically was rediscovered in the wonders of Ornamentation, a primal and exquisite subject matter that is always now somewhere at the core of my paintings. It had opened a profound 3rd door (or 3rd option) in the discussions of art making. All of this triggered the sensing of the beginning of a different kind of source from which art could be made, a source that was involved with feelings of compassion and empathy and inclusion no longer a separate thing removed from its audience. In this source, there is no need to feel apologetic for sumptuousness and sentimental sentiment.

My work now began to go far beyond Formalist mainstream concepts of 'painting about painting'. The rigid Mainstream parameters of the Modernist were exploded and became no longer the "mainstream" but a gushing river that simply swept away the restraints of 20th centuries Deconstructionism, Formalism, Minimalism and Conceptualism and the end to 'less is more', clearing the way to a boundless ‘beyond’ of glorious, 'more is more' and ending approximately 150 years of reductive art with things to feel and paint : delicate arbitrary patterns; an emphasis on design; designs from any culture in the world, folk art (subjects that were considered trivial and often referred to as low art.) . And of major importance was the re-embracing of the word, ‘Beauty’. A word, that had become taboo and disappeared from the art world in the late 19th Century and three/fourths of the 20th.

I began to feel a kind of ephemeral clarity of where I wanted to go. I had discovered and became aware of the enormity of what had been opened and felt the shift of priorities and the giddiness in the making of a fresh piece of Art. It could now be shockingly, soft and tender, sweet and romantic and often looked on as being too sentimental (like that’s a bad thing?!). Sentimentality beautifully exposes our humaneness. How amazing is that... and isn’t it wonderful, considering that that word, in these paintings, emit sentiments of comfort and caring and even joy, which are basic needs and feeders of hope and humaneness. It is wonderful to know that our species is, at its core, capable of exuding this tremendous force of a collective compassionate embrace).

A seemingly endless source of imagery became accessible to me - imagery that I loved and grew up with and lived with, slowly all this extraordinary imagery of great beauty that surrounded me was now becoming available for me -- patterns and designs of all countries, jewelry, old wall paper and 40s Armstrong linoleum (our Aubusson's). Rag rugs, lace and knitted and crocheted objects, rug stores, domestic objects used as charms and adornments found in junk stores, flea markets, yard sales, that now became my museums and galleries (of which I had stopped going to for a few years). The stifling limitation on what Art was supposed to look like and be, had finally lifted and I felt the parameters of painting expanding. I now was creating bigger boundaries and different limitations that offered more flexibility.

This ageless subject matter of ornamentation with its new fresh voice, including now all classes and away from the exclusivity of the world of Academia, and its stifling intellectualization that was never able to realize that making Art was not about how intellectual you were but rather about how to make your deepest feelings visual...

This recalls an incident with my grandmother and grandfather: One spring they decided it was time to re repaint the kitchen again, as they did every three years. They divided the walls horizontally into two colors. The bottom, 4ft high, or so, was a dark glossy brown and the top was a glossy cream. On the dividing line of the colors they applied a decorative stencil running completely around the kitchen. When I asked her why she did that her simple reply (in Slovak) was "because it’s beautiful". To this day I feel that her answer is still at the very center of all of Art making.

Also, not to be forgotten, our technology has advanced so rapidly, much faster than our emotional growth (which is a bit scary) also contributed to so much change. It has changed the role of the artist in society. We no longer have to be a reflector of society and all of its madness on this war planet because this technology does it so much better and faster. We now, almost instantly, know of any event that happens anywhere in the world within minutes It has shrunken the world to what Marshall McLuhan in the 60s called a ‘global village’. Now having been further released of the role of a reflector we can take on the role of a much needed director’ (which actually happened once before by the after the horrors of the first World War with the Dada Movement - artist turned their backs on the bestiality of man and made all things. that that generation took seriously into a joke and made mockery of).

As my fresh role as director I direct my work to assist in change, to heal, to-infer joy and empathy... and to evolve. Evolving away from our primal destructive instincts. Art is not passive. It plants seeds of optimism and compassion deeply into the human psyche .

So all that happened in the 70's to me...Oops, neglected to mention the big one, 'Meditation.' with its life changing awesome ability to create internal balance and an extraordinary sense of well-being. And finally here is now what is in the ether around us, that we live and breathe and create and participate in everyday and night:

The source that I work from now is so much broader and generous. It is no longer necessary to apologize for sumptuousness and sentimental sentiment but rather to embrace it; It is one that does not any longer speak of art speaking about itself, as a separate entity from its environment; It is a source that speaks of, Human things here and now’; It speaks of you and me and us and of our interconnectedness to each other and to all other things big and small; It speaks of new awarenesses made possible by quantum physics that speaks of the fact that in each of our cells is contained the entire history of the universe,'; it speaks of the binding concept of ‘string theory’ and 11 dimensions. It speaks of ‘life force’ and the exquisiteness of each of us, all with the capability not only to destroy but to heal; It speaks of the diagramming and mapping of the Genome; It speaks of vulnerabilities and civility; it speaks of humaneness; It speaks of balance and mending the firmament that is constantly being torn; It speaks of the extraordinary technologies that have reduced the planet to an encyclopedia of visuals and changed the lives of every being; It speaks of evolution and the possibility to evolve away from our war planet mentality; It speaks of the universe (and now universes?); It speaks of you and us and we and this universe as one living and breathing organism; It speaks of us and everything being made of the same organic material. It embraces everything in the All in which we live.

This is in the ether now (that began in the 70's – very different from what was gestating in the 50’s- 60’s.

-Robert Zakanitch, Yonkers, 2018

Robert Zakanitch, "Big Comet (Celestial Series), 2018, Gouache and white pencil on paper, 48 x 60 in. (121.9 x 152.4 cm), Collection of the artist

Robert Zakanitch, "Big Comet (Celestial Series), 2018, Gouache and white pencil on paper, 48 x 60 in. (121.9 x 152.4 cm), Collection of the artist

Exhibit News: "Ornament as Promise" at Ludwig Forum Aachen

Robert Zakanitch, "Blue Hound," 1978, Acrylic on canvas, 70-5/8 x 118-1/8 in. (180 x 300 cm) Collection Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Robert Zakanitch, "Blue Hound," 1978, Acrylic on canvas, 70-5/8 x 118-1/8 in. (180 x 300 cm) Collection Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Pattern and Decoration

Ornament as Promise

21.09.18–13.01.19

Opening: Thursday, September 20, 2018, 7 pm

Patchworks and decorative patterns on the one hand and a political-emancipatory claim on the other – the Pattern and Decoration movement combines apparent contradictions. In the mid-1970s, the movement developed in the USA as one of the last art movements of the 20th century, in which the participation of women was as prominent as never before. The movement was supported among others by feminist artists, such as Joyce Kozloff, Valerie Jaudon, Robert Kushner and Miriam Schapiro. In reclaiming fantasy, color, variations of forms as well as sensuality, they radically distinguished themselves from the predominant Minimal Art and Concept Art at that time. The movement questions not only traditional notions of art, but also addresses broader political and social issues like the position of women, of Native Americans, or ethnic minorities in the global art scene. Pattern and Decoration represents a counter project to a male-dominated understanding of art that is globally influenced by the values of Western industrial states. The movement’s political and global aspiration is articulated through an aesthetic of captivating ease and seductive beauty: with works that celebrate sensuality, fantasy and color and through which social-critically contents, as well as an immediate lust for life, are conveyed.

The works of this movement have received little attention in Europe so far. The Ludwig Forum for International Art Aachen, home to the largest public European collection of Pattern and Decoration artworks, now undertakes a first comprehensive reappraisal and reassessment of the artistic movement through this exhibition and publication project.

The planned exhibition will present about 80 works altogether, showing the movement in all its diversity for the very first time in Europe: the spectrum of artistic forms ranges from mosaics influenced by oriental art, monumental textile collages, paintings, and graphic works through to room-sized installations and video performances. More recent works by Polly Apfelbaum, Christine Streuli, and Rashid Rana, among others, show how the achievements of Pattern and Decoration continue to resonate to this day in terms of both form and content. The movement’s interest in pictorial elements from non-Western art is more topical than ever, especially in light of the renewed discussion surrounding a “global art history” – a regular subject in major art shows like the documenta. If one moves beyond the notorious stigma of “ornament as crime” (Adolf Loos, 1908), it becomes easy to recognize that despite all their decorative effects, ornaments have always been symbolically important and crucial for expressing worldviews. To this very day, they still serve artists as a means to reflect on their own culture and criticize, for instance, political systems, the traditional roles imposed on women, social conventions and expectations.

After Aachen, the exhibition will travel to the mumok – Museum moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, one of the main hubs of the art nouveau movement and thus of the ornament.

The publication accompanying the exhibitions will be published in both German and English by Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, and provides a comprehensive review of the Pattern and Decoration movement based on extensive new scholarly research. It features contributions by Manuela Ammer, Esther Boehle, Michael Duncan, Holger Otten, and Anne Swartz as well as historical texts by Amy Goldin, Valerie Jaudon/ Joyce Kozloff and Harald Szeemann. Edited by Esther Boehle (Ludwig Forum for International Art Aachen) and Manuela Ammer (mumok – Museum of Modern Art Foundation Ludwig Vienna).

Artists of the exhibition: Polly Apfelbaum, Adriana Czernin, Brad Davis, Frank Faulkner, Tina Girouard, Dan Hays, Valerie Jaudon, Joyce Kozloff, Robert Kushner, Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt, Kim MacConnel, Rashid Rana, Miriam Schapiro, Kendall Shaw, Christine Streuli, Ned Smyth, Lee Wagstaff, Heike Weber, Robert Zakanitch, Joe Zucker

Curator: Esther Boehle

Curatorial assistant: Denise Petzold

Supporters: With generous support of the Peter and Irene Ludwig Foundation, Terra Foundation for American Art, Stiftung der Sparda-Bank West

Pattern and Decoration. Ornament as Promise was initiated by the Ludwig Forum Aachen and implemented in corporation with the mumok – Museum moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien.